Full-Sphere Frequency Scanning Array Antenna Based on Passive Dual-Band CRLH Series Integrated Feeding Network

A full-sphere frequency scanning array antenna based on passive dual-band composite right/left handed series (CRLH) series integrated feeding network is presented in the paper. The proposed antenna array can support full-sphere (elevation angle θ = 0° to 360°) frequency beam scanning, where each θ is mapped to a unique frequency value. The array is realized by combining the dual-sided antenna elements with dual-band CRLH feeding network. For the antenna elements, both the proximity and aperture coupling are used to feed the radiators placed on the opposite sides of the shared ground plane. Furthermore, the right-handed and left-handed sections of the CRLH transmission lines (TL) are individually designed to provide the dual-band dispersion engineering of the proposed feeding network. In summary, directive full-sphere frequency scanning can be realized using an all-passive compact single array design. The full-sphere frequency scanning capability (a minimum of 30° in each quadrant) of the proposed passive array antenna is validated both in simulation and measurement.