Low-Cost and Reliable Yield Estimation of Miniaturized Microwave Couplers Using Variable-Fidelity Simulations and Response Features

Fast and reliable statistical analysis of compact microwave couplers is addressed. The proposed technique exploits variable-fidelity electromagnetic (EM) simulation models as well as a response feature approach. By establishing a local feature-based surrogate of the structure at hand, as well as a mapping between characteristic points of EM models of various fidelities, yield estimation can be carried out at extremely low cost of a few high-fidelity EM analyses. The methodology has been demonstrated using a CMRC-based miniaturized equal power split rat-race coupler operating at 1 GHz. Reliability of the approach is verified by comparing with direct Monte Carlo analysis and single-fidelity feature-based yield estimation.