Accurate and Stable Microwave Vector Modulators

Achieving the ultimate in instantaneous RF bandwidth requires a switch away from superheterodyne with its bandwidth-constricting image filters to vector direct-conversion/modulation with no fundamental bandwidth constraint. Another benefit is a far simplier architecture. This talk discusses techniques to overcome traditional vector direct-conversion accuracy problems. Included is an intuitive introduction to vector direct-conversion/modulation theory, quadrature generation techniques, circuit errors and their spectral consequences, and finally the state-of-the-art in vector modulation performance and stability over temperature.